An increasing number of people want to live in a country house with urban comfort. It is not at all difficult to carry out water in a country house, bath or toilet. How to install a kitchen sink, shower or toilet with flush. However, the disposal of wastewater seems to be a problem for many at once for several reasons:
- the device of a concrete cesspool is quite laborious and costly;
- if the cesspool is small, it will often have to be pumped out, which is uneconomical;
- calling an aspender machine to a dacha can be quite expensive, especially if it is far from the city;
- with a high level of groundwater pumping will have to be done more often.
The exit can be found in the septic tank without pumping out.
Septic tank device for giving
A septic tank is a sewage collector in which solid organic particles are decomposed by microorganisms into carbon dioxide, methane and water. Septic tanks consisting of two or three sections work most effectively. All sections are interconnected by overflow pipes, have inspection hatches and ventilation. Sections are sealed, and in the last the bottom is a drainage.
The principle of the septic tank is as follows:
- Wastewater enters the first settling chamber. In it, the solid particles settle to the bottom, and the water after this primary treatment is poured into the next section.
- In the second tank, the water is purified using bacteria that decompose organic matter. As a result, decomposed organic matter settles to the bottom in the form of sludge.
- The clarified water enters the third drainage reservoir and is absorbed into the ground.
Purified water in this way does not pose any danger.
Septic tank for giving without pumping: advantages and disadvantages
Having arranged a septic tank in the country without pumping, you can get a lot of advantages:
- total absence of unpleasant odors, since only carbon dioxide and methane, which have no odor, are released through the vents;
- the sludge formed at the bottom is decomposed organic matter and is quite suitable as a fertilizer;
- water after cleaning with bacteria is considered to be completely safe for the environment and can be used for watering;
- a correctly mounted septic tank does not need special care and can do without cleaning up to ten years;
- the whole system is underground, does not take place and does not spoil the landscape;
- septic non-volatile, if not used aerators;
- A small septic tank can be made with your own hands from improvised means.
The disadvantages of this septic tank are relative:
- the use of chlorine-containing detergents leads to the death of bacteria;
- in a few years the system will still require pumping;
- The price of a septic tank is quite high.
It is also worth noting that the incorrectly calculated performance of the septic tank can lead to the fact that, before it is cleaned, the water will get into the soil, so before installing the cleaning system you should carefully calculate how much wastewater will get into it daily.
Choosing a septic tank to give: how to calculate the volume
According to sanitary standards, one person uses about 200 liters of water per day. The same amount will go down the drain. In the first section of the drive wastewater must be at least three days, so the minimum septic tank, designed for one person, must accommodate 600 liters. Now you need to multiply this figure by the number of people and round up.
For example, three people live in the house, which means that the total volume of wastewater will be equal to 1.8 m³, which means that the volume of the septic tank must be at least 2 m³. In this case, the first section should account for 2/3 of the total volume. For a three-chamber septic tank, the remaining volume is divided equally into the remaining sections.
How to choose a place for a septic tank in the country?
When choosing a place for a sewage treatment plant, it is necessary to follow several rules:
- the distance to the foundation of a residential building must be at least 5 meters;
- from the well - 50 meters;
- from the reservoir - 30 meters;
- from trees - 3 meters;
If the plot is on a slope, the septic tank should be located below the level of the house and the well.
Failure to comply with these rules may result in wastewater entering the water intake and contaminating the drinking water with harmful bacteria.
Types of septic tanks to give
Types of septic tanks that do not require regular pumping, many. There are cost-effective options from available tools and ready-made factory settings. Most of them are non-volatile, that is, do not need electricity. In country conditions it can be very convenient. Consider the most common options.
Septic barrel for giving
One of the most economical options for installing a summer sewage system in the country is a septic tank made from metal or plastic barrels. This simple mini-septic tank for giving can consist of one barrel, dug into the ground bottom up. In the upper part of the barrel is cut a hole for the sewer pipe, the barrel itself is mounted on a pillow of coarse sand and rubble. This option is only suitable for gray kitchen drains, provided that gentle detergents (laundry soap) are used to wash dishes.
An improved version of such a septic tank will be two communicating barrels. The first storage drum should be with a sealed bottom, the second barrel - drainage. In the second case, it is better to choose plastic barrels, since metal will quickly rust the bottom.
Septic tanks for giving from eurocubes
Eurocubes are plastic water tanks. The cameras of them should be installed on a solid concrete base so that the whole structure does not move under the action of groundwater. Before installation, containers are insulated to protect against freezing and installed in the pit. Then the Eurocubes are filled with water, the walls of the pit are concreted. Pipes for ventilation are brought to the surface. The system is insulated from above. For effective drainage in the system, it is desirable to add a filtration field that distributes purified water over a large area.
Simple septic tank for giving from concrete rings
For the device of a septic tank for giving often use concrete rings. They are strong, durable, have good tightness. The system can be quickly mounted, but for transportation and stacking of the rings will need special equipment.
Concrete rings are available in different diameters, you need to select them according to the desired volume of the septic tank. The foundation pit for such a septic tank must be concreted, a cushion of rubble is needed for the filter well. Rings are placed one on another, the joints must be insulated with cement mortar and special waterproofing materials. At this stage it is necessary to provide a supply pipe to the rings.
It is important to calculate the angle of inclination of the pipe and its diameter. Then the concrete chambers fall asleep. Above the surface there are only ventilation outlets and inspection wells. With an accurate calculation of the volume and proper installation of such a septic tank will eliminate the worries of wastewater for many years.
Septic tank for brick
This inexpensive option of the device of the country sewerage can be even cheaper if to be engaged in a laying of a brick independently. Since the entire system is under the ground, the flaws of such masonry will not be noticeable. For septic tanks use clinker or ordinary red brick. The sequence of work on the device of a brick septic tank is as follows:
- the excavation is dug out;
- a sand-gravel mix is poured on the bottom and the foundation is poured;
- walls in one brick are laid out;
- pipes of the sewerage and ventilation are mounted;
- masonry is insulated with bitumen or special mastic;
- top floor slab and hatch for maintenance installation.
If you have small skills in laying brick, a similar septic tank can be laid out in a few days with your own hands. Only to install the top plate may need a crane.
Plastic septic tank to give
It can be simple barrels, eurocubes or a factory system. The device of a plastic septic tank for giving is favorable for many reasons:
- light weight for easy transportation;
- extensive range;
- long service life;
- resistance to aggressive media;
- good tightness;
- easy installation
Companies engaged in the production of local wastewater treatment systems have long appreciated all the advantages of plastic. Almost all septic tanks are made from it. The big plus is that recycled plastic waste is used for production.
How to make a septic tank to give with high groundwater?
The high level of groundwater can be a big hindrance to the arrangement of the septic tank, since the unfinished water can mix with the groundwater and pollute them. The best way out is to build an airtight septic tank. Instead of filtering fields it is necessary to use special filtering cassettes that are mounted on the surface. Plastic or concrete will be the most suitable material, but it is better to refuse to use tires, concrete rings or brickwork. Horizontally located containers will bring the greatest efficiency. So that the system does not freeze, it must be well warmed. The degree of cleaning in this case will be higher if you use multiple cameras.
Anaerobic septic tanks to give
This type is a cesspool and is usually used as a septic tank for a toilet in the country. It is completely unsuitable for large volumes of effluent, but quite suitable for a small amount of wastewater. Anaerobic septic tank is cheap and easy to install. For a country house with a low discharge rate, such a system would be quite enough.
The process of decomposition of sewage in an anaerobic septic tank can be increased by planting colonies of bacteria that decompose organic matter. Then the degree of purification is doubled.
Septic tanks to give: which one is better
The market offers many ready-made models for local wastewater treatment systems. Focusing on customer reviews and sales volumes, you can make a rating of factory-made septic tanks. The following models are considered to be the best in quality and optimal in price:
- a plastic septic tank of six chambers with the Ecopan biofilter for 6–8 people;
- installation of two tanks with the Breeze biofilter. Designed for 3-5 people, constantly using water;
- modular septic tank "Graph" is available with one, two or three sections;
- Astra cleaning system is designed for collecting and processing waste from several private houses at once.
Without a doubt, the best septic tanks without pumping are industrial designs, where all the subtleties are thought out by experts, and manufacturers guarantee absolute tightness and a high degree of purification. However, a simple septic tank for a country house, made by hand with the observance of all precautions, will always be a good and economical alternative to the factory.