Mattiola is a herbaceous plant native to the Mediterranean. The flower has a fairly simple appearance, but attracts gardeners with its exquisite aroma, which is enhanced at night. Planting and care do not require special skills, so even beginner growers can do it. Mattiola is often used to decorate terraces, gazebos or balconies. Flowers have other common names - "Levkoy", "night violet".
Features of the plant
Mattiola is an annual, biennial or perennial herb. Some species of violets are shrubs with branched stems, bare or covered with felt pile. Their height reaches 20 - 80 cm. The flowers can be different: pink, white, yellow, as well as simple and double. Regardless of the appearance, they are all collected in inflorescences resembling an ear or fancy brushes.
Levkoy blooms from early June to November. The fruits are represented by small pods in which there are seeds of violet.
The genus Mattiola has about 50 main varieties. Of these, scientists were able to derive about 600 ornamental plant species. Violets are classified by height:
According to the structure of flowers mattiola is divided into simple and terry.
The most popular varieties are mattiola bilobus, gray and fragrant.
The annual plant has a branched stem, which forms a small 50-centimeter shrub round shape. In the period from June to August comes the flowering of mattiola two-horned. Flowers are simple, consist of 4 petals. Color purple or pale pink. The plant exudes quite a strong pleasant aroma. The fruits are represented by pods, in which small, oblong-shaped seeds ripen. Mattiola two-horned is often used by flower growers to create a variety of landscape design projects.
Annual plant has a weak branching. The height of the shoots is 20 - 80 cm. Oval leaves with short pubescence densely cover the stems of the left. Flowers can be, both simple and terry. At the top of the plant, they gather in thick attractive inflorescences. Their color is diverse, there are white, blue, pink, purple and yellow flowers. The period of flowering of this variety levkoev continues from June until the first frosts. In the southern regions, Mattiola is pleasing to the eye with its lush inflorescences even in winter. Fruits appear only in varieties with simple flowers, they are represented by flat pods with seeds inside.
Mattiola is considered an unpretentious flower that does not require complex care. It is forbidden to plant plants in areas where cabbage and other representatives of the cruciferous family were previously grown. Otherwise, the flowers are infected with a keel and a fungus that infects the rhizome.
Mattiola successfully adapts to the most different climatic conditions. For effective cultivation of the soil should be fully moisturized. Suitable soil - loamy, black soil, sod-sandy, but not sour. Landing is better to make in sunny open areas.
The flower propagates with the help of seeds. Gather the pods after the onset of the first frost. They must be thoroughly dried. Soil preparation for sowing is done in autumn. Then the soil is enriched with fertilizers of organic origin. Plant reproduction occurs in two ways:
- Growing mattioli from seeds. From mid-April to May, depending on the climatic conditions, the seeds of the plant are sown in the soil. The procedure is repeated every 2 weeks. This will make the flowerbed fragrant for a long time.
- Planting Mattiola If the climate allows you to land in March, the flowering will begin in June. Seedlings are grown in special containers filled with a mixture of sand and sod in a ratio of 1: 3. Seeds are placed in the ground and 0.5 cm sprinkled with earth. Watering is not required until the first shoots. Mattiola rises in about 4 days, after which the containers must be placed in a room with full lighting and temperature that does not exceed 12 ° C. This period is considered the most difficult, since suitable temperature indicators are not always easy to achieve.
After 14 days, the seedlings are swooping in separate containers. Not all of them will be able to withstand such manipulations, but as a result only the strongest resistant flowers remain. Planting mattiola in open ground is made in the middle or at the end of April. After that, the plant will be able to successfully tolerate a slight frost down to -5 °.
For the landing of preparing the wells, flooded with water. The plant survives better after placing in liquid mud. After filling the pits with soil, it must be thoroughly sealed. Stunted annual flowers with one stem are planted at a distance of 15-20 cm from each other. Mattiola two-horned and other branched high varieties are located 25-30 cm.
Perennial plants feel best in open areas that are well lit by sunlight. The ideal option for growing at home will be the location on the balcony, which faces south.
Terry and simple varieties are planted without damage to the earthen coma on the rhizome. Depending on the type of plant, the distance between the seedlings is maintained. Ideal for planting will be a cloudy day or evening, when there is no bright sunlight. If the seedlings are located too close to each other, it threatens to have a black leg infection. Mattiola grows well in fertile, loose soil with neutral acidity. Heavy soil and prolonged stagnation of water are unacceptable.
Two-horned mattiola and other varieties are unpretentious in care. They need active lighting and high-quality drainage system. Watering should be regular, but not too abundant. It is recommended to loosen the soil more often, so that under the influence of moisture a dense earth crust is not formed. Weeding weights is of great importance, because the leftists do not tolerate the proximity of aggressive plants.
Systematic application of top-dressing to multi-year matthiols is not required. In the spring, it is enough to water the seedlings once with a solution of a complex fertilizer intended for flowering plants. In the presence of fertile soil, even this is not necessary.
Levkoi are especially vulnerable to the effects of fungi, in particular, to the black leg and cabbage keel. To prevent infection, it is necessary to properly care for the plants. Mattioli should not grow too close to each other and be subjected to excessive watering. The most common pests are the whitefish, the cruciferous flea, and cabbage moths. By processing perennial and annual flowers with special insecticides, you can quickly get rid of their negative impact.
A few decades ago, mattiola was considered quite a popular plant. Nowadays, it is less common. The plant looks great in the classic park direction. He is very fond of flower growers who prefer traditional styles. Blossoming brushes have a bewitching scent that fills a flower garden with special charm.
Terry gulfs are harmoniously combined with other summer flowers. The most interesting combinations are obtained with rosemary, decorative wormwood, lavender. The two-horned mattiols look good in tandem with feverfew and phlox. Decorative leafy plants and herbs - thyme, thyme - emphasize the attractiveness of the night violet.
White, soft pink, purple gulfs are planted in the foreground of flower beds and flower beds, as well as along garden paths. Often flowers are used for the purpose of gardening and decorating loggias and balconies. They are suitable for growing in flowerpots. Low-growing varieties are used to decorate ponds and pools.
For the creation of floral compositions suitable high varieties mattioly. Plants do not lose their original appearance and pleasant smell throughout the week.
Mattiola is a night violet, beautiful and mysterious. The flower is unpretentious in the care, so it is often grown beginner gardeners. The plant offers great opportunities for creating original landscape design projects.