Tiles as a roofing material known since antiquity. Burnt clay, from which it is produced, has all the necessary properties for the roof, except for impact resistance. Nowadays, with the development of technology, analogs of clay tiles made of modern materials, such as bituminous (soft), composite, and metal, have become famous. Modern types of tiles are durable, durable and possess such necessary qualities as flexibility and lightness. They win in value. Manufacturers add to them a wide range of colors and shapes, making this product indispensable in the market of roofing materials. If you are attracted to these types of roofing, you should learn more about them.
The tile from the burned clay is widely used still. The roof covered with it has all the necessary qualities:
- water resistant;
- frost resistance;
- biological resistance;
- environmental friendliness.
The roof of clay tiles does not require additional operating costs (painting), noiseless during rain, fireproof. Among the shortcomings can be noted a large weight that requires strengthening the roof structure and a relatively high price.
Russia has a national standard for the production of ceramic tiles. When purchasing, make sure that the selected product meets this standard.
Clay tile is produced of all standard sizes and types, which allows to cover any figured roof or pediment with it, to securely close the ridge, to impose a place around the pipes and ventilation.
The composition of shingles
Shingles is a type of soft roof. It is made of fiberglass, bitumen and granulate - basalt or slate sprinkles.
- Fiberglass (fiberglass) is a cloth woven from glass yarn and felted like felt, which gives it strength. This elastic and lightweight material is commonly used in construction.
- For shingles use modified bitumen enriched with oxygen or SBS-modified. The latter type is called "rubber bitumen". Its production is based on additives of polymers, as a rule, artificial rubber. It gives the bituminous tile the properties of frost resistance, elasticity, resistance to UV light and increases the service life.
- The granulate in shingles protects the bitumen base from atmospheric exposure, prevents its melting under the sun, damage from hail, gives strength and enhances the decorative effect due to the large color diversity. As a granulate shale or basalt crumb of different fractions is used. Slate granules are more crumbling than basalt.
Production technology of shingles
The production of shingles is a phased multi-stage process. It begins with the unwinding of fiberglass, which is produced in rolls. Then the following operations take place:
- impregnation of fiberglass with bitumen;
- addition of modified bitumen;
- surface reinforcement with special stripes;
- application of the granulate on the front side;
- drying and cutting of the finished material.
The last shingles pack for further transportation.
Installation of shingles
You can roof this type of flexible roof in two ways. Single-layer tile laid in any direction - from the bottom up and vice versa. Two-layer mounted only from the bottom up - from the eaves to the ridge. First, they make the installation of the initial, starting row, then lay the ordinary tile, then follow the installation of the internal joints, and complete the work with the installation of the skates.
In the starting row stack eaves shingles - it has a straight form without projections. Instead of the eaves in the starting row, you can lay and ordinary tile. In this case, the petals from its edges are cut off with a roofing knife.
The self-adhesive tile is convenient in use. Before laying, remove the protective film from it.
Installation of ordinary tiles start from the bottom of the center of the slope. The first row is laid almost on the eaves, 1 cm shifting it up. The upper rows are laid with a shift, closing the joints of the previous row. At the ends of the roof near the gables, the hanging edges of the tiles are cut along the edge with a knife. Then the junction of the edge of the tile and metal drip glue bitumen mastic.
If the roof has internal corners - valleys - installation is somewhat more complicated. First, a special lining carpet is laid at the junction of the slopes. Then cattle holders for gutters and dripers are attached to it. Then there is a layer of the end carpet and the tile itself is already mounted on top of it.
On the ridge of the roof is the same eaves tile. It is called the ridge-eaves. Each tile is bent in half and laid with a bend on the ridge. Overlap is determined by the level of self-adhesive base. For installation of tiles use special roofing nails.
Pros and cons of shingles
Soft tile has many advantages that distinguish it from other roofing materials:
- the ability to provide high-quality waterproof coating on the roof of any configuration;
- easy installation and low waste;
- noiseless during rain;
- small weight and dimensions.
At arrangement of a roof under a flexible tile the continuous substrate from moisture resistant materials - plywood or OSB is required. This significantly increases costs and is its main drawback.
Types of shingles
Shingles produced with different forms of petals, which allows to obtain variations in the surface pattern. The species quickly got the names, aptly describing their appearance:
- rhombus, hexagon;
- beaver tail;
- dragon tooth.
For eaves and ridge rows usually take a tile of a rectangular appearance. On the same roof, you can combine tiles of different colors, creating a unique design.
This sheet roofing material has nothing in common except the appearance with this tile. It is a galvanized sheet of steel, aluminum or copper, covered with a protective layer of polymers. The sheets are pressed by cold pressure in such a way that the surface resembles a tiled brickwork. The metal tile is popular - it is inexpensive, easy to fit, long serves and looks great.
One of the undoubted advantages of the material is its lightness. One square meter weighs about 5 kg, which is significantly less than ceramic tiles or slate.
Low weight allows you to reduce the cost of the truss structure of the house, since the installation does not require a reinforced system for natural tile or a solid bituminous coating.
The quality of metal depends on the steel, which should contain the necessary alloying additives, and on the class and type of protective coating. Metal tiles made of copper and aluminum alloys, inferior to steel in strength, but surpasses it in corrosion resistance.
Unlike metal tiles, this type of flexible roof is covered with additional protective layers. The basis of the composite - sheet steel with a thickness of 0.4 to 0.6 mm. From two sides it is covered with alumotsinkovogo alloy. This layer protects the steel from corrosion. The alloy is coated with an acrylic primer to increase adhesion with the following layer - a protective acrylic composition. It is applied granulate - a crumb of natural stone and completes all transparent acrylic glaze. The last three layers are applied only on the outer side of the sheet.
The granulate gives the composite a natural tile look and significantly reduces the noise level from precipitation. Glaze is a universal protective material that protects from virtually any effects.
Composite tile serves at least 50 years and weighs a little more than metal - about 6.5 kg per square meter.
This coating is fire resistant, resistant to temperature extremes and is not afraid of ultraviolet radiation. Color variety allows you to choose a coating for every taste.
How to choose a composite tile?
When choosing composite shingles should pay attention to the material of the granulate. The best quality is basalt crumb, as it practically does not crumble. Unscrupulous manufacturers can replace it with colored sand that quickly burns out in the sun and crumbles.
When buying composite tile, pay attention to the manufacturer and the seller's warranty.
High-quality composite coating should contain a homogeneous solid alumino-zinc layer. If this layer is incomplete or missing from the reverse side, the steel will quickly begin to rust. The outer layer of acrylic glaze should completely cover the sheet - it protects against burnout and the appearance of moss on the surface.
Finally, a quality product must have all the necessary documentation.
Installation of composite tiles
Before starting installation, make sure that:
- The roof slope has a tilt angle of at least 15-18 degrees. Otherwise, oblique streams of rain may fall under the roof.
- The rafters are firmly attached to the walls, but they have the necessary degree of freedom to compensate for seasonal variations in the size of the wood.
- Purchased material is enough for the removal of the roof beyond the wall by 0.5 - 1.8 meters.
If the roof has a minimum angle of inclination, it is better to install an additional waterproofing layer.
Check with the seller the necessary parameters of crates for the selected material.
Installation of this type of shingles begins with fixing the eaves. Next, using screws or pneumatic pistol fix the sheets of composite, starting from the eaves. For work it is better to choose galvanized screws, painted in tone tiles. To cover the ridge using special sheets, having a fold in the middle.
The roof of the house, covered with tiles, looks respectable, thoroughly, and at the same time cozy, therefore this material has a growing number of adherents both among self-taught summer residents and professional developers.